Minimally Invasive (laparoscopic) Hysterectomy in India
A Hysterectomy Surgery can simply mean removal of the uterus, or it can mean removal of the uterus, cervix and ovaries. Although hysterectomy is frequently performed for fibroids (benign tumor-like growths inside the uterus itself made up of muscle and connective tissue), conservative options in treatment are available by doctors who are trained and skilled at alternatives. In 2003, over 600,000 hysterectomies were performed in the United States alone, of which over 90% were performed for benign conditions. Such rates being highest in the industrialized world have led to the major controversy that hysterectomies are being largely performed for unwarranted and unnecessary reasons.
What is Hysterectomy Surgery?
A Hysterectomy Surgery refers to an operation where a woman's uterus is surgically removed. This procedure spells the end of a woman's ability to become a mother biologically. This may seem a rather drastic step to take, especially for women who want to have children. However, a hysterectomy becomes essential under certain circumstances. The term Hysterectomy is from Greek ὑστέρα hystera "womb" and εκτομία ektomia "a cutting out of. It may be total (removing the body, fundus, and cervix of the uterus; often called "complete") or partial (removal of the uterine body while leaving the cervix intact; also called "supracervical"). It is the most commonly performed gynecological surgical procedure.
Why Hysterectomy Surgery?
Hysterectomy Surgery is most often performed for the following reasons:
Uterine Fibroids : Are the common, benign (non cancerous) tumors that grow in the muscle of the uterus. More hysterectomies are done because of fibroids than any other problem of the uterus. Sometimes fibroids cause heavy bleeding or pain.
Endometriosis: Is another benign condition that affects the uterus. It is the second leading reason for hysterectomies. It occurs when endometrial tissue (the inside lining of the uterus) begins to grow on the outside of the uterus and on nearby organs. This condition may cause painful menstrual periods, abnormal vaginal bleeding and loss of fertility.
Uterine prolapse: Is a benign condition in which the uterus moves from its usual place down into the vagina. Uterine prolapse is due to weak and stretched pelvic ligaments and tissues, and can lead to urinary problems, pelvic pressure or difficulty with bowl movements. Childbirth, obesity and loss of estrogen after menopause may contribute to this problem.
Cancer: is the reason for about 10 percent of all hysterectomies. Endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma, cervical cancer, and cancer of the ovaries or fallopian tubes often require hysterectomy. Depending on the type and extent of cancer, other kinds of treatment such as radiation or hormonal therapy may be used as well.
Hyperplasia: Is believed to come from too much estrogen and occurs when the lining of the uterus becomes too thick and causes abnormal bleeding.
Different Techniques used for Hysterectomy
1. Abdominal Hysterectomy - is the oldest techniques in which the uterus is accessed through a horizontal or vertical incision of 5"-7" made in the lower part of the abdomen (just above the pubic line). This procedure is generally used for radical hysterectomy as the entire reproductive complex can be viewed and explored through this incision. Since this procedure involves the cutting of abdominal muscles, recovery after this surgery is slow to allow healing of the muscles. It generally takes 6 months for complete recovery.
2. Vaginal hysterectomy hysterectomyAn incision is made at the top of the vagina, through which the uterus, including the cervix, is separated from surrounding tissue and then taken out through the vagina. This small vaginal incision heals quickly and usually won’t leave an external scar. There is little discomfort since the abdominal muscles are not stretched during the procedure. It takes one to two hours and requires a hospital stay of about one to three days. The recovery will usually take about four weeks.
3. Laparoscopic Approaches
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